Navigation: | | | | | |

:

: .

1.6

 

堠  ꠠ 頠 頠 - . 젠 堠 젠 蠠  - 蠠  ࠠ 堠 - 頠 ࠠ ꠠ 󠠠 蠠  蠠 ࠠ 堠  蠠 . 頠 蠠 頠 - .

II, 1864 .,  ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 - 젠 젠 ࠠ 堠 . 蠠 ⠠ 젠 ࠠ . 蠠 蠠 蠠  ࠠ ࠠ 蠠  蠠 ⠠ 젠  蠠  - . ..  , 堠 젠 . , 頠 렠 頠 頠 I ⠠ 15881589 .  󠠠 , ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 ,

 

蠠 : 蠠 ࠠ 堠 ࠠ ,   蠠 ࠠ , 堠  , 堠  蠠 蠠  젠 蠠 젠 . - 堠  񠠠 8-蠠  12-蠠  렠 ࠠ 栠 - , 蠠  ꠠ 堠 렠 堠 - ,  젠 ࠠ 栠 ⠠ 頠 . 蠠 堠 ࠠ ࠠ 堠 ꠠ 堠  堠 㠠 ,  렠 - 蠠 頠 ⠠ 堠 ࠠ 蠠 , - 1.

  , 젠 ⠠ 젠 堠 20 1864 ., ,  蠠 䠠 , , 頠 蠠 - 頠 , , 頠 蠠 堠 , - 젠 頠 蠠 , 򠠠   - .

蠠 , 蠠 堠 -

:

;

;

;

, .

  堠 蠠 頠 1864 . 렠

, 頠 렠 ꠠ -

.

:

1) 蠠

ࠠ , ࠠ

 蠠  ⠠ 蠠 젠 -

;

2) , -

ࠠ 蠠  蠠  -

;

3) , -

ࠠ 蠠  蠠  -

.

 

1 . . 11 . 1996. 3. . 5354.

 

  ࠠ  ,  . , 蠠 蠠 , 堠 堠 21 , - , 堠 蠠 , 堠 堠 򠠠 ࠠ 蠠  ,  - 젠 젠 蠠 ⠠ , ࠠ 堠 , 堠  ࠠ  - 젠  , 堠 䠠 젠 ࠠ - 蠠 , 堠 ࠠ 堠 蠠 - , , , 蠠 ,  蠠 - , 堠 砠  蠠 砠  - ࠠ ࠠ 蠠 蠠 堠 砠 ⠠ 蠠  젠 , ꠠ 젠 蠠 , , .

堠 ꠠ 堠 ࠠ - 젠 젠  頠 堠 젠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 頠  , ꠠ 󠠠 頠 頠 ⠠ . 堠 蠠 󠠠 : - , 頠 󠠠 ; 頠 , 蠠  ࠠ 蠠 ; .

堠 蠠 ꠠ  - ࠠ ⠠ 젠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ ⠠ .  ࠠ 1864 .  򠠠  .  砠 頠 - , , 堠 堠 ⠠ 堠 񠠠 . ⠠  ࠠ ࠠ 񠠠 堠 ࠠ .  ⠠ ,  堠 - .

, 頠 蠠 堠 ⠠ , 렠 ⠠ , 頠 堠 񠠠 蠠 頠 頠  堠 󠠠  - , (. 926 -

 

). , 젠 , 頠 - 頠 , ࠠ 젠 젠 , 堠 . ꠠ 頠 ᠠ - . 頠 ⠠ 렠 蠠 򠠠 , 堠   񠠠 . - 頠 頠 򠠠 堠 頠 蠠 頠 頠 ꠠ -  ࠠ  蠠  ࠠ (⠠ - ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ -  񠠠 젠 젠 ꠠ - ).

堠 젠  ࠠ  - 󠠠 蠠  󠠠 頠 ꠠ 󠠠 󠠠 񠠠 젠 , ⠠ 堠  렠 ᠠ (. 935

936 ࠠ  ).   -   ࠠ  - , , - ,  堠 ⠠ 򠠠 򠠠 - , 󠠠 , , 堠 堠 - 젠  ࠠ , ࠠ - 堠 򠠠  . 򠠠  򠠠 蠠 頠 ᠠ 蠠 堠 ࠠ  蠠 堠  . 䠠 堠 堠 򠠠 頠 젠 ᠠ 젠 젠 蠠 堠 젠 . ,  ࠠ 󠠠 ⠠ 蠠 ⠠ - , ⠠ 젠 堠 ᠠ .

堠 ⠠ 頠 蠠  󠠠 -  ࠠ 1864 . , . - 젠 , 頠 ⠠ 렠 - ࠠ ᠠ 젠 젠 堠 . - 堠 , 頠 ⠠ 렠 蠠 頠 , ࠠ 렠 堠 蠠  (. 950 ࠠ  ). 򠠠 렠 젠 젠 .

 

. 堠  ࠠ  - 頠 ⠠ 堠 󠠠 , ⠠ 1.

1864 .  ⠠  - : -,  ; -, 堠 ࠠ - 堠 堠 ; -, ࠠ - 頠 , 󠠠   (. 933); -, - 堠 ࠠ ࠠ (. 1129, 1192, 1208); -, 堠 蠠 ࠠ 򠠠 堠 蠠 , 堠 堠 젠 ⠠ - 頠 젠 ꠠ (. 934). 堠 , 蠠  ࠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ - ࠠ 蠠 𠠠 - .

堠 蠠 蠠  - 蠠 堠 , 堠 蠠 . ࠠ  ࠠ 頠 蠠 ࠠ 񠠠 頠 頠 蠠 - 頠 . ࠠ   - 頠 ꠠ 蠠 

砠 堠 堠 . - 堠   頠 , ⠠ 堠  ࠠ 蠠 - .

ꠠ  - 頠 堠 ⠠ 젠 堠 - 젠 堠 Р 1923 ., ࠠ 堠 ⠠ . 堠 蠠 ࠠ . 堠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠  젠 , 堠 蠠 - , , 蠠 頠 蠠 , 堠 . ࠠ 堠 - 頠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 蠠 .

 

1 .: .., A.M. . . . 19.

 

堠 ꠠ ⠠ -  ⠠ 젠 堠 Р 1964 ., ⠠ 蠠 ࠠ Р  堠 頠 򠠠 24

1973 ., ࠠ 堠 ⠠ 蠠 ᠠ 젠 15 1985 .   䠠 ࠠ -  ࠠ Р 蠠 , 1990- .

堠 蠠  ࠠ :

1) 堠   ;

2) 堠 蠠 ꠠ 頠 堠 蠠 䠠 젠 젠 ꠠ ⠠ ,

;

3)   ࠠ -

堠    

;

4)   , -

蠠 , , 젠 -

ࠠ 頠 

頠 ⠠ 蠠 , -

, , , -

, , ;

5) 堠   ࠠ ⠠

.

堠 蠠 蠠 (. 348

  ࠠ , . 77 ࠠ

堠 ) 蠠 ⠠ 젠 :

ࠠ 蠠 ⠠

⠠ 頠 , 蠠

 ࠠ (. 5 . 26 ࠠ  -

堠 ) 蠠  蠠 Ԡ (. 6

堠 蠠 Ԡ 4 1993 . 1187), ࠠ -

ࠠ 頠 頠 

(. 349 ).

頠 ࠠ ࠠ ⠠ -

蠠 񠠠 頠 頠 ࠠ 堠  -

,  蠠 , 頠 -

. -

 

蠠 , ⠠ 蠠 頠 ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 , , ,  堠 堠 򠠠 - 堠 ,  젠 蠠 - - , 蠠 蠠 -頠 - .  ࠠ  - .

 ࠠ ⠠ 頠

1990- . , -,  ⠠ 頠 , ࠠ -, -

頠 頠 , 젠

.

  1997 . ⠠ 頠 蠠 ࠠ -

: Π 蠠 ᠠ

. 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ -

堠  . 蠠  񠠠 젠

堠  ꠠ 頠 񠠠  蠠 , , 젠 堠 . 젠 , 蠠 - .

1. ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ  -

頠 蠠

젠 젠 . ࠠ 砠 , -

⠠ 󠠠 頠 ⠠

 , ⠠ ,  -

堠 堠 ꠠ

⠠ 蠠 젠 堠 ⠠ 蠠 -

⠠ 頠 蠠 堠 蠠 堠

 蠠  ,

ࠠ 󠠠 堠 򠠠 蠠 堠 

젠 젠 Ԡ 蠠 젠 -

.

堠  ꠠ 񠠠 򠠠 -    - , ꠠ 堠 ꠠ 蠠 -堠 , - 堠 ⠠ 堠 -젠 - . -

 

頠 堠 堠 ⠠ ⠠ ⠠ 頠 堠 , ࠠ - 頠 , 蠠 󠠠 ࠠ  - 󠠠 蠠 Ԡ 󠠠 󠠠 - 頠 . 堠 񠠠 젠  蠠 - 堠   蠠 , ⠠ 堠 蠠 - ⠠ 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 , , 堠   젠 젠 젠  .

2.     . - ࠠ 蠠 ⠠ 젠 堠 堠 򠠠 - .

3. ࠠ ࠠ  堠 ࠠ -

蠠 ⠠ ࠠ 堠 -

頠  , ⠠

ꠠ 젠 . 젠 -

  젠 ࠠ

(ࠠ 젠 ⠠ 蠠 ),

⠠ 蠠 .   , 頠 -

렠 堠 堠 蠠  -

, ࠠ 

.

4. ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 -

⠠ ⠠  . -

, ᠠ 蠠 蠠 -

 . 堠 蠠 堠 -

 ⠠ 頠 堠

.  ⠠ 頠 򠠠   젠 -

젠 ,  ⠠ 頠 頠 -

堠  蠠 ࠠ

 蠠 , 蠠 蠠 蠠 (

).

: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 |